This has the older version (1995-98) of the theory (by this author, Christopher Pringer, therapist, student, researcher since 1984), PLUS various additions: a fairly extensive, lay-person friendly Intro (including for the "PROJECT" just below), a PREP-Note section (much revised May'14+), EXTENDED notes on the Motor Management Pathways, Limbic, & Somato Sensory related contexts, thence extensive & more continuously updated "Background & Key Research" and Reference Section(s), & anatomical illustrations.
Otherwise, this THEORY page has been mirrored to it's own page (reworded slightly to be more brief), among those 12 pages comprising the Fascia Memory Project, which project includes it's own TOC, overview & task-flow charts as described just below.
NOTE as needed: The better basic functional explanation of how Body-Memory is relevant to our lives, with the overall therapeutic, less scientific how's & why's of body-memory storage & release, is at the "Body-Mind Integration" (Essays) Page.
Links to all these and more are included at right or just below - this & navigation updated Nov'18
|Section Topics & Links
Proposed Research Project: Overall Goals for R&D, Charts, Etc
Prep-Notes Fascia and "Body-Memory", relationships and implications
"Body Memory (Storage) and Morphic Fields - "Background & Key Research (Intro)
"An Image to Set the Scene"
Fields of Communication and "Wrinkles in the Saran Wrap"
Motor Management (NEW Aug'17+, pathways, limbic, &...)
Somato Sensory Related Contexts (NEW Aug'17+)
Body-Mind Relationships: A few more Questions for Research
CHART illustrating Fascia Memory Theory - Interfaces of the Proprio-Neuro, Motor Management, Connective Tissue, Adrenal, Emotional Body Aspects... (June'12, Aug'17)
Somatosensory Pathways & Anatomy Charts (Sept'17)
Related Considerations, incl. a Fibromyalgia Theory with Examples (4'11)
Related References (Extensive, including it's own TOC)
More Recent Related Scientific Research including "Proprioreception research breakthrough! 9/21/16" and "...Thalamus & "Thalamic Somato-Sensory Memory Gating"
Seminal/Key Research in Body Memory Including The Oschmans, Candace Pert, Stuart Hameroff & Roger Penfield, and "Q & A of Relationship between the Dynamics of Neuropeptides, Microtubules, and Somatic Recall (April 2017)"
Research in Fascia, Water & Fascia, AND...
Related Pages at this Site (more elaborated descriptions)
UPDATES & EDITS PAGE Incl. to this page :: Maintained / CURRENT
About Page and the Author/Artist/Site Info (separate pages)
This link will take you to the Project Home Page with 11 pages: including TOC, project objectives/goals, Theory, references, & charts
Proposed Overall Goals
for Research & Development:
¤ To identify and define the relationship(s) between connective tissue (fascia), the objective/subjective experience, and "body-memory" -- which relationship(s) will be connected, and thus revealed through the research as a much more 'tangible' consideration in medical diagnostics;
¤ To identify and define related scanning devices and diagnostics hardware and software for discerning and illustrating these relationships;
¤ To identify and define all manner of changes (that these devices will read) in fascia (including around circulatory vessels, etc), including pathological changes occurring prior, during, and subsequent to the research;
¤ To identify and define the most suitable means for organizing and coordinating communications among the many highly interdependent sub-projects and, on a continuing basis as needed, determining each and all together their direction;
¤ To identify and define scientifically supported medical applications, including enhanced systems for developing body-awareness for preventative health maintenance application;
¤ To identify and define the integration of these systems for both small- and large-scale applications.
¤ Some corollary programs are suggested that would provide financial support as well as avenues for expanded research.
Fascia-Memory Project Overview Chart
Task Flow Chart [PERT-style view]
Fascia Memory Project set of web pages includes Overview & Pert Charts (see left)
Theory first published by this author (Fall '96) at BioPsy Cyberzine & Futurehealth
The "Body-Mind Integration" (Essays) Page
The How's & Why's Of Psycho-Emotional Storage In The Body-Mind and much more (title essay Published In Massage Magazine, July-August 1992)
"Tensing Yoga" For learning these dynamics, AS you treat your own chronic areas, in a relatively easy, enjoyable way. There's newly added focus (Fall'11) on Tension Range & *Work/Rest Ratio*, thence Muscle Energy Efficiency, on individual muscle focus & teamwork WITH muscles, thence "edgework", upon clarifying realities about proper stretching vs some common myths & resulting injuries. TY is not about yoga positions (asanas), although TY may improve that - quicker, easier, & without injury.
The Body-Mind Integration Home Page
Essays, Art, Professional Bio, Links, FTP
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FASCIAL-BASED EMOTIONAL MEMORY STORAGE SYSTEM HYPOTHESIS
An Image to Set the Scene:
Fields of Communication and "Wrinkles in the Saran Wrap"
Briefly back to "the basics" of Body-Mind Relationships [June'12]
Chart of System Interfaces in the Psycho-Physiology of the Fascia Memory Theory
Somatosensory Trigeminal Lemniscus Pathways (upper pic) and Somatosensory Spinothalamic Tract (middle pic) to Thalamus [through brainstem and cerebellum though
not shown in upper two pics], Cranial Nerves at brainstem and Thalamus (3rd from top, left, with pons & floor of 4th ventricle) With gratitude to the Digital Anatomist Project
of the University of Washington. To right of that is a view of the Somato-Sensory Pathways from the spinal cord on up to the Thalamus, and at bottom left are two
thalamus-centered views (in one pic) of the limbic system, both of these thanks to Prof. Raj Kalaria (with a fair amount of editing by Chris Pringer). All added September 2017
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Related Considerations [Fall, 1995]
How about " Fascianomics " - term denoting the efficiency of the neuro-fascial interface to conduct symmetric bio-magnetic resonance in alignment with, and facilitation of, the maximum-potential of effortless whole systems function.
I believe there may be other ways that the brain-mind stores and accesses memory [including per "Long-Term Memory Networks in the Brain" in Reference section, Aug'16], but that the *fascia-memory system* works for the "emotionally charged" and/or suppressed experiences for which the person consciously and/or unconsciously feels there needs to be further processing. This further processing then takes place if/when a more appropriate time and circumstance presents itself, and as the priorities and readiness allow for that particular and/or related psycho-emotional development.
With this in mind would it be feasible to consider Fibromyalgia as an over-stimulated sensory field receptor system in the connective tissue matrix interface? This over-stimulation would be due to system being "on alert;", due to original unconscious decision to alert warning system, should recurrence/continuation of an original stimulation (usually from infancy or early in childhood) be suspected. Thus its characteristics relating it to (an) "Auto-Immune" disorder. [Apr'11:] How about a relationship to a perfuse scattering of waste products throughout the fine interstitial spaces among the cells of muscle tissues due to their being chronically held *contracted* and under-circulated, including trauma induced, or long-term-habituated, neuro-emotional contractedness over a broad-area (including by being forcibly tickled in early childhood)? And a broad scattering of fine pin-pricks of pain? See next section below for more about that.
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In reference to "Excerpts from 'Neuroscience and Psychotherapy" (excerpts of which are in the Related References section below), I had suggested (In the "Prep Notes" section above) that the thalamus might be looked at for the *mediation function* ...in coordination with the FMTheory components, as it is extensively connected to and surrounded by the limbic system...
Given that, and in consideration of the ventricles, which centrally penetrate as well as 'co-envelope' the limbic system, and given that the lateral walls of the third ventricle are formed by the medial thalamus and hypothalamus, and it's roof is formed by the corpus collosum [the "supra-communicative bridge," if you will, of the left and right brain]...
...I would like to request, but only if the reader would be so adventurous, to ALSO consider these *ventricles*, as may be important in neuroscience and psychotherapy. Because a) they conduct the central spinal fluid (CSF) that circuits through the energetic vortices of the hormone glands. And from there to consider that, as the more esoteric among us would agree, the CSF might thereby collect information from these chakra systems. And as the CSF is channelled by and through the ventricles that information contributes to the overall resonance of that from which we derive, interpret, and establish our psycho-emotional place in the world.
I have no expectations of this later system's existence, let alone involvement, being *proven* by western science - at least until after the achievement of the research goals of the Fascia Memory Project. Which might be, let's say, 2027? Which should have by then motivated some very intense study of the limbic system, and thus managed some curiosity about the ventricles along the way... So, five to ten more years? 2035? [You may find a more thorough neurologically functional and anatomically described version of the above at "Scientific Research On the Limbic System - Co-Enveloping the Ventricles" at the "Recovering the...Intuition" page. [ For best context, keep reading here, go there later and/or open in another tab(s). ~cp, Sept'17]
Excerpts from "Neuroscience and Psychotherapy" by Marilyn Morgan, SRN, B.A., MNZAP
Marilyn Morgan is a master teacher and Certified Hakomi Trainer who has a special interest in the new and exciting developments in interpersonal neurobiology. In this article she introduces a number of currently relevant advances in neuroscience (2006)
"Many people who have had traumatic childhoods have problems with memory. They sometimes can’t consciously remember most of childhood, yet unwanted feelings and images from childhood experiences may intrude. It is not uncommon to forget a lot of details in daily life as an adult; appointments, where one has put car keys, phone numbers and so on.
"Ron Kurtz, founder of Hakomi, (Kurtz, 1990), described the child as `the mapmaker’. Neuroscience emphasizes that the connections formed within the brain are experiencedependent. A person is born with approximately 100 billion neurons. If these nerve cells were placed end-to-end they would stretch two million miles. There are many nerve connections already in place at birth, the being brain was hard-wired to seek connection with caregivers, and basic bodily functions proceed. However, the major growth of neurons and the wiring of neuronal circuits are yet to take place depending on experiences to come. Eventually each nerve cell is likely to have 10,000 connections.
"Daniel Siegel [MD, referenced below as well as quoted at the "Body-Mind Integration" page in section, "Notes & Refs on Neuroplasticity / Cellular Re-Organization] describes the brain as an anticipatory machine. The infant’s, and child’s, interactions with her world are imprinted in her brain circuitry. She is `wired up’ for a particular world. Her brain is coded with all kinds of memory, and most of the early memory will be unconscious. However, this memory will deeply affect later emotions, behaviour patterns, beliefs, and abilities to process information. In Hakomi we call this core material, and the shaping of character styles. Other models describe ‘deep cognitive structures’, ‘schemata’, ‘unfinished business’, or sometimes ‘the inner child’. 
"When the parent to whom the child goes for comfort and mirroring is also a source of fear this creates massive neural disorganization. Trauma and abuse in the young child has a serious impact on brain structure and function. Those parts of the brain undergoing critical growth at the time of the trauma will be particularly affected. This child is likely to have a smaller brain overall, fewer fibres in the corpus callosum connecting the left and right hemispheres, a smaller hippocampus, and poor development of prefrontal lobe areas. (Teicher, 2002)"
Continued just below picture
"Implicit memory ...is generally unconscious, and there is not the sense of ‘remembering’. Things feel as if they are happening now, in the present. Implicit memory requires no attention to be encoded. There are different kinds of implicit memory: Procedural memory is the patterns of behaviour and habits we learn. It is mediated by the cerebellum and striatum.
The HeartMath Institute: "We have a tremendous body of research here at the Institute on the heart and its influence. The fact that electrical energy produced by the heart is 60 times stronger than that of the brain is not our research; that is known by anybody involved in the biophysics field. What we've been able to show is that yes, that's true, and that frequency is being received by every single cell in the body. And the frequency content of the heart's electrical energy emission changes relative to our perceptions, how we're taking in what we're taking in. So certain heart-based types of qualities like care, appreciation or love that have often just been associated metaphorically with the heart really do produce dramatic changes in the electrical energy output of the heart when people are perceiving/receiving from a place of care or appreciation. And in turn, our research shows that when that electrical energy changes, it goes to what's called 'coherent frequency patterns'. We're able to correlate that to changes in the immune system and changes in hormonal balance. And we also see changes in perception and intelligence. There's a lot more to what the heart is doing than people realize. It's not just a blood pump." Enjoy the IHM Research Papers, Abstracts, and Reports (at http://www.heartmath.org/RP.html)
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"Unlocking the Brain’s Deepest Secrets"
By Teal Burrell, 25 May 2016 (NOVA at PBS)
[ My Comment Follows (Opinion, relative to *fascia memory theory* ]
"In neuroscience, neurons get all the glory. Or rather, they used to. Researchers are beginning to discover the importance of something outside the neurons — a structure called the perineuronal net ...an organized tangle of proteins that helps form the extracellular matrix, a sort of neuron exoskeleton. ...perineuronal nets and the extracellular matrix might explain many of neuroscience’s mysteries."
...“Up to this point, we still don’t understand how we maintain memories in our brains for up to our entire lifetimes,” says Sakina Palida, a graduate student in Roger Tsien’s lab at the University of California, San Diego. ..."
Memory was previously theorized to be facilitated by a kind of reinforcement of brain neurons with added synapses, but there were too many holes in the theory.
"...That the perineuronal net is involved in some form of memory isn’t entirely new; Tsien’s hypothesis is that it is the structure for long-term memory, and that is new...To Tsien, a modern Nobel laureate, the breakthrough came when he started thinking outside the neuron. Instead of molecules inside neurons retaining memories, molecules outside neurons might be the key. “You need very long lasting molecules to store things and what else is better than just on the other side, the outside of the synapse?” Tsien says. “You have equal access to the information that’s in the synapse, but the proteins and carbohydrates that are on the outside of the synapse can last forever.”" The nets were reported 130 years ago by Camillo Golgi, but after a time of not knowing their purpose, became pretty much ignored."
"In 2009, perineuronal nets were blamed for the fact that fear memories are nearly impossible to erase in adults. ...At the latest Society for Neuroscience meeting in Chicago, it was clear perineuronal nets are not being ignored any longer. ..."
My Comment (including note on positive touch-related memories):
While this theory is probably right on target, I believe it is much more likely to explain non-traumatic long-term memories, and not the hard-core glue of trauma-suppressed memories (*per fascia memory theory*). And the discovery of the *means by which the nets work* will very likely be key to the discovery of the means by which fascia-memory works, if not the existence of that matrix/system itself. That is, the means for the brain's nets will likely be found similar to that for fascia-memory. However, they will likely be found far more *neuro-magnetically* similar, but less neuro-electrically, and certainly less neuro-mechanically similar, if you will, to the fascia-memory matrixes. There are no proprioceptors in the brain, after all. AND (per *fascia-memory theory*) there will be found a relationship between the neuronets of the fascia and that of the brain - one that is set up to communicate with each other on an as-needed, certainly long-term basis. And yes, "neuro-magnetically" is the term I intended to use - per the *fascia-memory theory* - and refers to the mechanisms of neuro-muscular physiology yet to be found[?] and which (to me, still) appears is going to require more advanced scanning equipment than we have yet to devise and use[?]. Another question arises (here) about the strongest positive touch-related memories, and I'm guessing that those are "referenced" in the fascia via a third set of (neuro-magnetic) mechanisms, more subtle than that for trauma-suppressed memories, hence not based on or necessarily related to[?] the fascia-pleating mechanism. ~cp 8/17/16
And The Rest Of Us Walk"
Heard on All Things Considered
By Jon Hamilton, September 21, 2016
[[ My Comment Up-Front: As far as I can tell, this is much more about the genetics vs the nerve tracts to/from the medulla, nor the processes therein, nor the emotional memory storage component as [I suspect would necessarily be] transmitted on to the limbic centers, let alone directly related to the neuro-muscular proprioceptor processes referred to in the *fascia memory theory.* But I am sensing it may be a step closer to that, although I'm pretty sure their are distinctly separate systems for the indicating "positioning in space" vs the degree of force exerted (passive vs active, effect vs cause). While they are both necessary for proprioception, almost paradoxically so, The later (in each case) would seem to more related to the emotional storage theory here. ~cp 9/22/16]]
"A rare genetic disorder is helping scientists understand our mysterious ability to sense where we are in space, known as proprioception.
This "sixth sense" is what dancers and gymnasts rely on to tell them the exact position of their body and limbs at every moment. It also tells them how much force each muscle is exerting.
The most beautiful demonstration of proprioception in action is Simone Biles when she is spinning and somersaulting through the air," says Carsten Bonnemann, a pediatrician and geneticist at the National institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.
Scientists have known about proprioception for more than a century. But they didn't realize how much people depend on it until they got a chance to study two young patients with a rare genetic disorder that leaves them completely lacking this sense.
...Damiana's condition might have remained a mystery if Bonnemann hadn't seen her a few years ago while holding a clinic in San Diego.
He was puzzled by her symptoms and ordered a state-of-the-art genetic analysis. It turned up a mutation in a gene called PIEZO2, which allows certain cells to detect mechanical pressure. ...Then one day Bonnemann heard about a colleague at the National Institutes of Health who knew a lot about PIEZO2. ...The colleague was Alex Chesler from the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health.
...Chesler had spent years studying PIEZO2 in mice. But he'd never had a good way to study its function in people. So last year, Bonnemann, Chesler and a team of researchers invited Damiana and another patient with a similar PIEZO2 mutation to the NIH. The visit was a revelation.
Excerpts From Related Article,
“Sixth sense” may be more than just a feeling NIH study of rare genetic disorder reveals importance of touch and body awareness:
...Dr. Bönnemann’s team uses cutting edge genetic techniques to help diagnose children around the world who have disorders that are difficult to characterize. The two patients in this study are unrelated, one nine and the other 19 years old. They have difficulties walking; hip, finger and foot deformities; and abnormally curved spines diagnosed as progressive scoliosis.
Although they both felt the brushing of hairy skin, one claimed it felt prickly instead of the pleasant sensation reported by unaffected volunteers. Brain scans showed different activity patterns in response to brushing between unaffected volunteers and the patient who felt prickliness.
Despite these differences, the patients’ nervous systems appeared to be developing normally. They were able to feel pain, itch, and temperature normally; the nerves in their limbs conducted electricity rapidly; and their brains and cognitive abilities were similar to the control subjects of their age.
“What’s remarkable about these patients is how much their nervous systems compensate for their lack of touch and body awareness,” said Dr. Bönnemann. “It suggests the nervous system may have several alternate pathways that we can tap into when designing new therapies.”
Article 2 (as Referenced by Above) Excerpts:
September 14, 2016, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1602812
New England Journal of Medicine
Alexander T. Chesler, et al.
"The senses of touch and proprioception evoke a range of perceptions and rely on the ability to detect and transduce mechanical force. The molecular and neural mechanisms underlying these sensory functions remain poorly defined. The stretch-gated ion channel PIEZO2 has been shown to be essential for aspects of mechanosensation in model organisms."
VIBRATION SENSING AND TOUCH DISCRIMINATION:
...We evaluated the patients’ performance on several sensory tests. We began by assessing mechanosensory responses on glabrous skin (e.g., skin on the palm and fingertips), which is highly sensitive to touch. ...We next assessed mechanosensory responses on hairy skin...
We quantified each participant’s perception of large proximal and small distal joint movements spanning 10 degrees in the arms and legs. Control participants sensed the direction of the movements in their joints with 100% accuracy, whereas the PIEZO2-deficient patients identified the direction of the movements with 40 to 60% accuracy, a rate no better than chance (P<0.001 for both patients)
"...We next analyzed the paths and kinetics of motion using a simple learned motor task that involved reaching from the nose to a target placed at arm’s length (see Videos 3 through 6).
"...Clinically, we observed general losses in vibration detection, touch discrimination (specifically on glabrous skin), and joint proprioception. We conclude that PIEZO2 is required to transduce the mechanical forces at the sensory afferent terminals in these various contexts in humans.
"...Descriptions of persons with altered ability to sense pain have highlighted the importance of nociceptive input to health and survival.24,25 This study of PIEZO2-deficient patients offers similar insights into touch and proprioception. ... ...
... Descriptions of persons with altered ability to sense pain have highlighted the importance of nociceptive input to health and survival.24,25 This study of PIEZO2-deficient patients offers similar insights into touch and proprioception. Patient 1 and Patient 2 have major deficits in discriminative touch perception and loss of proprioception that noticeably affect movement control and posture, but they remarkably are still able to perform complex movements by relying on compensatory inputs, such as vision. In addition, we found that both patients’ perception of other forms of somatosensation, including pain from high-threshold mechanical stimuli and the touch responses evoked by gentle stroking on hairy skin, remains intact. The findings of this study and those of others2 show the way in which distinct and independent peripheral lines of input1,26 combine to provide the rich sensory experience of human touch and the perception of our bodies in space.
From the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Functional and Applied Biomechanics Section, Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; the Division of Neurology, Children’s National Health System, Washington, DC; the Department of Medical Genetics and Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, and the Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; and the Departments of Neurosciences and Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, CA (C.M.G.).
"Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Patients with Null Variants in PIEZO2"
Figure 3. Results of the Kinematic Reaching Task
Figure 3 (cut). Results of the Kinematic Reaching Task; Video Charting .
"During the kinematic reaching task, participants were instructed to use the dominant index finger to alternate between touching the nose and touching a target approximately 50 cm from the sternum while their eyes were either open or covered. ...mapping the trajectory of the finger during the skilled phase... as well as for the total path (which includes both the ballistic phase ...and the skilled phase), for a control participant (Panel A), Patient 1 (Panel B), and Patient 2 (Panel C). ...Also shown are graphs of the total path length with eyes open and eyes covered. (See Videos 3 through 6, available at NEJM.org.)"
[[ 2nd Comment: This research appears to be some of the first follow-up on Robert Schleip's articles, including "Fascial mechanoreceptors and..." in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. Excerpts about fascia as densely innervated by mechanoreceptors include, "Fascial plasticity - a new neurobiological explanation," and effected by "self-regulatory dynamics": "...Fascia and the autonomic nervous system appear to be intimately connected..." And "...Additionally smooth muscle cells have been discovered in fascia, which seem to be involved in active fascial contractility. Fascia and the autonomic nervous system appear to be intimately connected." And about the largest group of (type III & IV) sensory nerve fibers, now commonly called interstitial muscle receptors. "A better name would be interstitial myofascial tissue receptors since they also exist abundantly in fascia... are hardly mentioned in most textbooks." [See further below for more detail and links for Schleip's findings.] ~cp 9/22/16 ]]
Some Related Links:
Video of Drs. Chesler and Bönnemann discussing their study
National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) on touch-sensation and self-perception,
About the National Institutes of Health (NIH),
The NINDS Division of Intramural Research,
The NIH Clinical Center
Those found more related to this page's project's neuro/limbic systems are listed below (Sept'2018). Notes are added here and there about questions of direct applicability. And yet, might we in any case a) investigate to see just what areas may be looked into for what, and b) after the fact, look for findings that may be useful to the fascia memory related research.
Pain and Integrative Neuroscience Branch - Division of Intramural Research, NCCIH (National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health):
Research Interests— Section on Sensory Cells and Circuits:
Alexander (Alex) Chesler, Ph.D. heads the Section on Sensory Cells and Circuits (Note above reference, "The Role of PIEZO2 in Human Mechanosensation" by Dr. Chesler ~cp). This lab is interested in the neurons and circuits of the somatosensory system and the changes that they undergo during injury and inflammation. Currently, research in the lab is focused on discovering new molecules involved in the transduction of somatosensory stimuli and studying the regions of the brain that encode innocuous versus painful stimuli. Our work centers on a class of sensory neurons (called C fibers) that encode thermal, noxious, and mechanical stimuli. To investigate these questions, we are using a variety of methods in the lab to study transgenic mice that include physiology, two-photon imaging, optogenetics, and behavior.
Research Interests— Section on Behavioral Neurocircuitry and Cellular Plasticity:
Yarimar Carrasquillo, Ph.D. leads the Behavioral Neurocircuitry and Cellular Plasticity Section in the NCCIH Intramural Division. The main goal of the lab is to identify anatomical, molecular, and cellular mechanisms that underlie pathological pain states. Research will focus on the amygdala, a structure in the limbic brain system that plays critical roles in the modulation of tactile hypersensitivity, pain-related aversion learning, and pain-induced changes in anxiety-related behaviors in rodent models of persistent pain. [but incl. "in distinct anatomical pathways to and from the amygdala on different components" (see below) ~cp]
We are now accepting postdoc applications! Submit your application to Dr. Yarimar Carrasquillo (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that increased excitability of amygdala neurons correlates with persistent pain, suggesting that hyperexcitability of neurons in the amygdala plays a critical role in the modulation of pain hypersensitivity. The specific conductance pathways affected and the molecular mechanisms underlying plasticity of the intrinsic excitability of amygdala neurons, however, are not known. In addition, the physiological role(s) of changes in the excitability of amygdala neurons to pain-related behaviors remain undefined. Research in the lab addresses these questions directly by combining behavioral, biochemical, electrophysiological, pharmacological and molecular genetic approaches.
Parallel studies in the lab use anatomical, behavioral, electrophysiological, and optogenetic approaches to define how alterations in the excitability of amygdala neurons affect function at a circuit-level. These studies focus on evaluating the physiological impact of the modulation of neuronal excitability in distinct anatomical pathways to and from the amygdala on different components of persistent pain, including the sensory, affective and cognitive components.
Research Interests— Section on Affective Neuroscience & Pain:
Lauren Y. Atlas, Ph.D. leads the Section on Affective Neuroscience and Pain in the NCCIH Intramural Research Program. The lab’s work focuses on characterizing the psychological and neural mechanisms by which expectations and other cognitive and affective factors influence pain, emotional experience, and clinical outcomes. Our approach is multi–modal: we integrate experimental psychology, neuroimaging, psychophysiology, computational approaches, and other interventions to understand how psychological and contextual factors influence subjective experience. Current projects focus on dissociating components of expectancy, relating pain with other types of hedonic affective responses, and understanding various forms of expectancy (e.g., placebo effects versus cue–based predictions). Long–term goals include revealing how specific features of the clinical context and interpersonal aspects influence patient outcomes, as well as determining whether expectancy–based processing is altered in specific patient populations.
RELATED AT NIH
Albeit the focus here would seem, at least so-far, to be in question as to whether it is more oriented on drugs or on understanding the neurosensory/limbic system, and going from there (?):
Common Fund's Acute to Chronic Signatures Program: NIH Research Program to Explore the Transition from Acute to Chronic Pain: "...Our lack of understanding of the mechanisms of transition to chronic pain is a major gap in knowledge that limits development of effective preventive therapies. The ability to identify those at risk for transitioning to chronic pain could inform future clinical trials, improve success of trials, and transform acute pain treatment approaches for prevention of chronic pain..."
NOTE: The General Instructions for NIH and other PHS Agencies (pdf guide) indicates contacts for the Multisite Clinical Center Common Fund, including Clinical Coordination, are with the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), whereas the Scientific/Research contacts are with the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Contacts for Financial/Grants Management are for both NINDS and NIDA. See "More on NIH Funding" in Lower Right Column.
New CoEPEs Modules Released: Presented by Centers of Excellence in Pain Education
The Interagency Pain Research Coordinating Committeee, a federal advisory committee created by HHS
Dr. Elliot Krane talk, "Is Pain A Symptom Or A Disease?" at Ted Radio Hour of NPR, "Getting Better" February 10, 2017: A fascinating talk about many aspects, wonderful case reviews, concept discussions, and including all about what doctors are NOT trained about Chronic Pain - partly because not enough is known - and mentioned the NIH budget for Research on Pain (including per info in left column). Dr. Krane is Chief of Pain Management at the Packard Children's Hospital and professor of anesthesiology at the Stanford University Medical Center. "Doctors are often puzzled when pain lives on after the underlying cause goes away. Medical professor Elliot Krane explains why it can make sense to think of chronic pain as a disease." Which premise should become revised significantly (to say the least) given sufficient research into the "Fascia Memory Theory" (or equivalent).
Boomer Notes: Published by Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) 9/14/18: "Prevalence of Chronic Pain and High-Impact Chronic Pain Among Adults" — US, 2016 And this: "According to a Wall Street Journal analysis of injury statistics, injuries to Americans in the 35- to 54-year-old age group are climbing much faster than the group's population... No. 4 on the ouch list behind only basketball, soccer and softball." -- Doug Freed in "Massage & Cycling A Winning Combination".
Relating Chronic Pain to Adrenaline, Including "old atheletic injuries" but also to fascia/ body memory elements noted in the chart (earlier on this page) "illustrating the Interfaces of the Proprio-Neuro, Motor Management, Connective Tissue, Adrenal, Emotional Body Aspects.'
(Thumnail Link To) Article with Chart to illustrate the EARLY dynamics of adrenaline & cortisol.
The (linked to) Chart is a Dr. F. Netter illustration revised for this adaptation by Chris Pringer, 9'18, Adding text, "The FIRST PHASE of ADRENALINE & CORTISOL dynamics set up in the musculature, that is, LONG BEFORE and leading to most actual muscle injuries, including ATHLETIC INJURIES leading many over 35 years old to complain of Old Athletic Injures & Chronic Muscle Pain. It's Never too late to how to Pay Attention, to learn Body-Awareness, Preventative Maintenance"
Related but not covered in the adrenal dynamics chart/notes is about SCAR TISSUE- covered in some depth at the Tensing Yoga page.
MORE ON NIH FUNDING:
Current Funding Opportunities for the above: For most listed (https://commonfund.nih.gov/pain/fundingopportunities) Application Receipt Dates for Letter of Intent: 9/24/18, with Application Due Dates: 10/24/18. HOWEVER, for "Discovery of Biomarkers, Biomarker Signatures, and Endpoints for Pain (R61/R33 Clinical Trial Optional)": November 27, 2018; March 7, 2019; November 25, 2019; March 12, 2020 by 5:00 PM local time of applicant organization. However Please also NOTE these program dates (per pdf guide): Beginning of planning year: July 2019; Kick off MeetingSept 2019; End of planning yearJuly 2020; Beginning of recruitmentJuly 2020*; Futility analysisJuly 2021; End of recruitmentJuly 2022; End of patient assessmentsJanuary 2023; Integrative publicationFebruary 2024
Two Leaders in the Science as applied to Body Fascia, Bodywork, and Somatic Recall (What I usually refer to as "Body Memory"), and to Healing are James L. Oschman, Ph.d. and Nora H. Oschman (see introductory section of this page). They are the authors of "Somatic Recall, Part 1 - Soft tissue memory," which continues in "... Part 2 - Soft tissue holography," and "How Healing Energy Works." They have published the book, *Readings on the Scientific Basis of Bodywork, Energetic, and Movement Therapies* - Excerpts and notes from that can be found here. Visit their Web Site at http://www.energyresearch.bizland.com/.
Other References cited by Oschman, J.L. include: 'Structure and properties of ground substances.' American Zoologist 24(1):199-215; 1984. 'The connective tissue and myofascial systems.' Privately published manuscript; 1981. 'How does the body maintain its shape': A series of 3 articles that appeared in Rolf Lines, the news magazine for Rolf Institute members, Boulder, CO, ending with Vol. 18(1):24-25; 1989, 1990. 'Sensing solitons in soft tissues.' Guild News (Guild for Structural Integration, Boulder, CO) 3(2):22-25. 1994.
Molecules and Emotion, by Candace B. Pert, Ph.D. Ground-breaking research discoveries. The following are (paraphrased from "Science of Self - Feelings and the Bodymind":
Candace Pert, a molecular biologist formerly at Georgetown University, determined that the limbic (emotional) portion of the brain contains upwards of 85 percent of the neuropeptide receptors her team studied. Pert and her colleagues noticed a high concentration of these receptors "in virtually all locations where information from any of the five senses…enters the nervous system."
|The entire body might then be said, in Pert’s view, to be like a single organ with full sensing capabilities: "a far-flung, unitary, psychosomatic network". (Pert, pp. 142-143) Depending on the precise external or internal stimulus taking place at any given moment, a particular ‘information substance’ will flow through our body and bind to specific receptor sites. When this binding takes place, we feel a given feeling, encode a given memory, or are prompted to emote a certain way. (Schoen, Allen. Kindred Spirits. New York: Broadway Books, 2001, pp. 44-45) Pert conjectures that our bodily organs 'store' emotional memories based on the specific receptors they possess and the nature of the chemical messages they receive. Memory, she posits, resides in virtually every part of our body. (Pert, ibid; also O’Connor, Richard. Undoing Perpetual Stress. New York: Berkley Books, 2005, p. 331).||Many ref-links related to Candace Pert, emotion, and a new psychosomatic medicine - are at the "Links" page for "Spiritual Anatomy of Emotion" website. Also included in this page are Daniel Goleman (*Emotional Intelligence*); Richard O’Connor (*Undoing Perpetual Stress*); Candace B. Pert (*Molecules of Emotion: Why You Feel the Way You Feel*); Antonio R. Damasio (*Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason and the Human Brain*); Marina Piano (“Mind-Body Connection”); Ken Dychtwald (*Bodymind*); Candace B. Pert, Henry E. Dreher, and Michael R. Ruff ("The Psychosomatic Network: Foundations of Mind-Body Medicine").|
~From a talk delivered at “Survival and Consciousness”, a symposium sponsored by the Institute for Noetic Sciences, in Washington DC, October 26-27, 1985:
"The experiments showing the connection between emotions and the limbic system were first done by Wilder Penfield and other neurologists who worked with conscious, awake individuals."
"In 1975 we began to map the location of opiate receptors in the brain ...We found that the limbic system was highly enriched with opiate (and other neuropeptide receptors too, we subsequently learned). The amygdala and hypothalamus, both classically considered to be the main components of the limbic system (the great physiologist, Walter B. Cannon, singled out the hypothalamus as the foremost area for emotions to hook up to the brain), are in fact blazing with opiate receptors-40-fold higher than in other areas in the brain. These hot spots correspond to very specific nuclei or cellular groups that physiological psychologists have identified as mediating such processes as sexual behavior, appetite, and water balance in the body. The main point is that our receptor-mapping confirmed and expanded in important ways the psychological experiments that defined the limbic system. We were able to overlay a biochemistry of specific neuropeptides to brain regions implicated in the expression of emotions and behaviors."
"...A hormone presumably was stored in one place in the body, then travelled over to its receptors in other parts of the body. A prime example of a hormone is insulin... In short, it has become increasingly clear that the limbic system, the classical seat of emotions in the brain, is also the focal point of receptors for neuropeptides, some of which were first identified as hormones."
"...Equally important is the fact that neuropeptide receptors are not just in the brain, they are also in the body. We have mapped and shown biochemically that there are angiotensin receptors in the kidney identical to those in the brain, and in a way that is not yet quite understood, the kidney located receptors conserve water in the body. We know that they play with the ion fluxes so that water is conserved. [AND thus transmission potentials in the fascia? Note: There are topics in research of liquid crystallinity, electric and magnetic fields further below. ~cp] The point is that the release of the neuropeptide angiotensin leads both to the behavior of drinking and to the internal conservation of water. Here is an example of how a neuropeptide - which perhaps corresponds to a mood state - can integrate what happens in the body with what happens in the brain."
"...Another critical point. As we have studied the distribution of these receptors, we have found that the limbic system is not just in the forebrain, in the classical locations of the amygdala and the hypothalamus. It appears that the body has other places in which many different neuropeptide receptors are located- places where there is a lot of chemical action. We have call these hot spots “nodal points”, and they are anatomically located at places that receive and process a lot of emotional information. One nodal point is the dorsal (back) horn of the spinal cord, which is the place that sensory information enters the central nervous system. This is the first synapse within the brain where touch-sensory information is processed. We have found that for virtually all the senses for which we know the entry area, this location is always a nodal point for neuropeptide receptors."
"...The striking pattern of neuropeptide receptor distribution in mood-regulating areas of brain, as well as their role in mediating communication throughout the whole organism, makes neuropeptides the obvious candidates for the biochemical mediation of emotion. It may be too that each neuropeptide biases information processing uniquely, when occupying receptors at nodal points with the brain and body. If so, then each neuropeptide may evoke a unique "tone" that is equivalent to a mood state."
"...As we have seen, neuropeptides are signaling molecules. They send messages all over the body (including the brain). Of course, to have such a communications network, you need components that can talk to each other and listen to each other. In the situation we are discussing here, the components that “talk” are the neuropeptides, and the components that "hear" are the neuropeptide receptors. How can this be? How can 50 to 60 neuropeptides be produced, float around, and talk to 50 or 60 types of listening receptors which are on a variety of cells? Why does order rather than chaos reign? It has to do with the specificity, the selectivity of the receptors, not their direct wiring, not neuron to neuron."
"...I note in passing that the receptors are quite capable of changing their conformations within the cell membranes, which can occur at a very rapid pace - so rapid that it’s hard to tell whether it is in one state or another at a given moment in time. In other words, receptors have both a wave-like and a particle character, and it is important to note that information can be stored in the form of time spent in different states."
"Based on these findings, I am going to suggest that neuropeptides and their receptors form an information network within the body. Perhaps this suggestion sounds fairly innocuous, but its implications are far reaching. I believe that neuropeptides and their receptors are a key to understanding how mind and body are interconnected and how emotions can be manifested throughout the body. Indeed, the more we know about neuropeptides, the harder it is to think in the traditional terms of a mind and a body. It makes more and more sense to speak of a single integrated entity, a 'bodymind.'"
From "Neuropeptides and their Receptors: A Psychosomatic Network," J Immunology, 1985 (135:820s-826s) Pert, C.B., M.R. Ruff, R.J. Weber, and M. Herkenham:
"...Fundamental feature of neuropeptide receptors-enrichment at “nodal points”: nodal points in the limbic system of brain. A fundamental feature shared by all neuropeptide receptors whose brain distribution has been well studied is profound enrichment at a number of the same brain areas. Many of these neuropeptide receptor-rich areas can be found within an intercommunicating conglomerate of brain structures classically termed “the limbic system,” (17, 18), which is considered to mediate emotional behavior: in unanesthetized humans undergoing brain stimulation as a preclude to surgery for epilepsy, far-ranging emotional expression can be elicited by stimulation of cortex near the amygdala, the core of the limbic system."
"...Numerous recent studies have shown that it is the rule rather than the exception that sites of neuropeptide storage in brain lack physical juxtaposition with their receptors: thus the classical, closely juxtaposed synapse between the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and its receptor on skeletal muscle is not at all typical of neuropeptides."
[ I include the above quote only to note that, at the time of this research, had there been any corrolary research with neuropeptides and myofascial connective tissue, this would've been a great place to include a note, if only as an aside. Granted, Pert was not doing research in microtubules, but what if Candace Pert and Stuart Hameroff had put their minds together? Or if Stuart Hameroff and Dr. Daniel Siegel would? AND to thank Floyd M, who the question (in email) of whether the orientation of tubulin monomers along the microtubules [in connective tissue] might have been found related to the action of neuropeptides (Apr'17). More on this just below. ~cp ]
"...There are subsets of immune cells that make beta endorphins, for example, and the other opiate peptides. In other words, they are making the same chemicals that we conceive of as controlling mood in the brain. They control the tissue integrity of the body, and they also make chemicals that control mood. ...The functional integration of the body's cells (55) through networks of neuropeptides and their receptors (56) would be expected to be critical to the health of the organism as a whole."
"...Hemopoietic stem cells have been identified in the CNS (48), and the brain, only 10% of whose cells are neurons, is extensively populated by cells of macrophage derivation, the microglia. Other glial cells produce, in situ, hormones such as IL-1 (49, 50) which have been largely studied as immunologic factors. IL-1 has profound effects on CNS function, including thermoregulation and sleep induction, and therefore may have receptor sites within the CNS where it may function as a neuropeptide. Immune hormones, like the interleukins or interferons, may be precursors for peptides which act within the brain to also alter behavior. Macrophages are capable of transition from one body compartment to another and as such could serve as a kind of "mobile synapse," conveying information from one body compartment to another through a physical translocation, a concept commonly applied to intra-immune system communication (51)."
Floyd M. Emailed a great question:
"I read Pert's Molecules book and loved that and was curious if you have found any information (maybe this is on your site and I overlooked it) on the interplay between the neuropeptides body/mind and the fascia of the body. It seems that Pert was pretty ardent that the emotions can trigger these body/mind states that can be stored as memories depending on orientation of receptor on cell sites. I also read on the cell memory article that "Similarly, information is stored as the orientation of tubulin monomers along microtubule." And so it seems that there is information stores along various parts of the body, both in the information itself, e.g. DNA, and the orientation of receptors and tubulin monomers." My question, if this is still somewhat clear, is have you found a link between the way memories are stored in the fascia and somatic recall is possible from their manipulation and the way memories are stored via Pert's theory of neuropeptides?"
My Interpretation of the question:
Seems this is the question: Have I found a link between a) the way memories are stored in the fascia [and by thus, some of us assume that] somatic recall is possible via manipulation [as per the Oschmans' research, that information is stored as the orientation of the tubulin monomers along the microtubules"], and b) the way memories are stored via Pert's theory of neuropeptides.
First lets clarify that Oschman found that Hameroff refers (more specifically) to the position of attachment of the “microtubule associated proteins” or MAP's attached to the microtubule. Hameroff describes how this dynamic forms sets of information, and then talks about the "depolymerization of microtubules." Says that cells "will not be able to retain information for long periods, in contrast to tissues that have a low rate of cellular 'turn-over.'"
But the question of whether neuropeptides have anything to do with HOW those "MAP's" are formed or set-up do not seem to looked into by Pert and crew- possibly because their research preceded the discovery or nomaclating of those particular "MAP's." Possibly because after 1995 Pert focused so much on the Immune system (and HIV/AIDS) as they found related to that system's neuropeptide receptors circulating throughout the body, but sans to the muscle cells so much as the internal organs, let alone the memory dynamics therein [See the (extensive but chronological listing) of Pert & Related References: http://candacepert.com/library/].
So, as far as I can find so far, the answer to your question would be that Pert did not find that connection. I'm guessing that Hameroff has. ...Much of her key discoveries (or those most related to our focus) were actually prior to 1990!
Whereas in the last year I have been focusing on the research by whom it seems has taken up a sword most related, that being Dr. Daniel Siegel. [n.4/6/17]
On the other hand, Just how those neuropeptides DO relate to the microtubules is probably covered well by Hameroff [somewhere] and I/we should find that. Meanwhile, how those changes are recorded, thus establishing memory... Note that also in the (same) Oschman article, JZ Young's concept of memory is briefed, and this his is probably the source of the information I learned in massage school long ago - about the fascia acting like saran wrap to store a physical record of changes. It is from here that I extrapolated to form the "Fascia Memory Theory (1994+)." And in the chart on that page, the neuropeptides are very likely (of course) key to communications described in support of that theory. Pardon me if I digress somewhat.
Thank you for raising this question and contacting me !!!
[Adding here...] In restating Floyd's question, I skipped the part about "somatic recall [being] possible" - apologies, and that is addressed more directly in the next paragraph. Considering Pert was not doing research in microtubules, we could dream about Candace Pert and Stuart Hameroff collaborating on that question, or wonder/ask(?) if Stuart Hameroff and Dr. Daniel Siegel would? And they with those inspired by the great work of the Oschmans for the somatic recall element. Including their and others' more recent work noted in the "Research in Water and Fascia" section), including that of Drs. Chesler and Bönnemann in "More Recent Related Scientific Research" section above, Robert Schleip's "Fascial mechanoreceptors and their potential role in deep tissue manipulation," and others noted in the "Research in Fascia" and "Research in Water & Fascia" sections below. [In my brief but staccato shotgun approach with the search engine, I could find NO reference as useful (for that question) with search words, "Hameroff + emotion" or "Hameroff + neuropeptides" and related combo's (So apparently Hameroff has not gone there yet!)...
But, yes, I'm guessing or further theorizing that there IS a very important relationship between the neuropeptides, the orientation of the "MAP," and the "management" (if you will) of mechanoreceptors/proprioceptors - and very likely other neural transmissions from the point of time such a dynamic is initiated and until the components (noted per the Fascia Memory Theory) are "reset" (in the release of emotional storage). And the dynamics of this reseting of the proprioceptors (overall therapeutic), whether temporarily or permanently, in the storage and/or release of memory information, is the heart of the "Body-Mind Integration Essays" page. There is a ~cp]
"According to Becker (1990), the DC body field is not located in the nervous system itself, but in "perineural" tissues such as the glial cells in the brain and spinal cord, and the schwann cells encasing the peripheral nerves. This hypothesis would seem to conflict with the suggestion that the DC body field is correlated with the acupuncture system. ...Also, an electrodynamical field can be detected in all early embryos and in plants and animals which do not have neural or perineural tissues (Burr and Northrup, 1935). It is likely that the DC field is functionally interconnected with the nervous system, and yet exists, to a large degree, outside the nervous system. In fact, it is widely recognized that under a variety of conditions, the speed of communication in our body is much faster than can be accounted for by the known speed of nerve conduction (see Ho, 1997a), and nerves simply do not reach all parts of our body. ...we recently discovered that the living continuum is liquid crystalline, with all the properties that make liquid crystals ideal for intercommunication (Ho et al, 1996; Ho, 1997a). [various important lead-up points & references skipped]... Liquid crystals typically undergo rapid changes in orientation or phase transitions when exposed to electric (and magnetic) fields - which is why they are widely used in display screens. They also respond to changes in temperature, hydration, shear forces and pressure. Biological liquid crystals carry static electric charges and are therefore also influenced by pH, salt concentration and dielectric constant of the solvent (Collings, 1990; Knight and Feng, 1993). [various important lead-up points & references skipped] ...It is already widely recognized that all the major constituents of living organisms may be liquid crystalline (Collings, 1990) - lipids of cellular membranes, DNA, possibly all proteins, especially cytoskeletal proteins, muscle proteins, and proteins in the connective tissues such as collagens and proteoglycans (Bouligand, 1972; Giraud-Guille, 1992; Knight and Feng, 1993). Recent nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) studies of muscles in living human subjects provide evidence of their "liquid-crystalline-like" structure (Kreis and Boesch, 1994). [various important lead-up points & references skipped] ...Hardy suggested in 1927 that molecular orientation may be important for living protoplasm, and Peters, two years later, made the explicit link between molecular orientation and liquid crystals. Needham, indeed, proposed that organisms actually are liquid crystalline. But direct evidence for that has only recently been provided by Ho and coworkers ( Ho and Lawrence, 1993; Ho and Saunders, 1994; Ho et al, 1996). who successfully imaged live organisms using an interference colour technique that amplifies weak birefringences typical of biological liquid crystals."
More References from Mae Won Ho [for excerpt included above and other pages at this site]
|Roger Penrose & Stuart Hameroff
Roger Penrose had published his first book on consciousness, The Emperor's New Mind. On the basis of Gödel's incompleteness theorems, he argued that the brain could perform functions that no computer or system of algorithms could. From this it could follow that consciousness itself might be fundamentally non-algorithmic, and incapable of being modeled...
Stuart Hameroff was inspired by Penrose's book to contact Penrose regarding his own theories about the mechanism of anesthesia, and how it specifically targets consciousness via action on neural microtubules. The two met in 1992, and Hameroff suggested that the microtubules were a good candidate site for a quantum mechanism in the brain. Penrose was interested in the mathematical features of the microtubule lattice, and over the next two years the two collaborated in formulating the orchestrated objective reduction (Orch-OR) model of consciousness. Following this collaboration, Penrose published his second consciousness book, Shadows of the Mind.
[Above from Wikipedia's page on Stuart Hameroff]
Sir Roger Penrose and Stuart Hameroff [at Elsevier.Com] discuss how the discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' corroborates the theory of consciousness:
A few excerpts:
Penrose: Other theories consider consciousness to be due to complex computation among brain neurons. We think consciousness and understanding are not really just computation, but require something else, some type of quantum physical process intrinsic to the universe.
Hameroff: Biologically, these quantum processes occur at a deeper level, smaller, faster scale inside brain neurons, in protein structures called microtubules which seem to be natural quantum resonators, and can store and process memory and information.
... ... ...
Hameroff: Classical science sees neuronal firings and synaptic connections as basic bits, or information states in the brain. And billions of dollars are going to mapping all these connections in the hope to capture the essential feature of brain function - consciousness. This brain mapping may be missing the point entirely. We should be mapping deeper levels of scale, into the quantum vibrations in microtubules and other biomolecules. And therapeutically, stimulating microtubule resonances, for example with ultrasound megahertz vibrations, appears clinically useful in psychiatric, neurological and cognitive disorders. For example, in Alzheimer's disease, brain neuronal microtubules fall apart,'and brain ultrasound may put them back together.
The above discussion in February of 2014 followed the (January 2014 Elsevier.Com publication) "Discovery of Quantum Vibrations in “Microtubules” Inside Brain Neurons Corroborates Controversial 20-Year-Old Theory of Consciousness"
Question by the web page author/editor:
FACILITATING RESEARCH IN FASCIA: "Sheet Plastination- a Powerful Research Tool for the Macro-microscopic Configuration of the Fibrous Connective Tissue" Ming Zhang, MB, MMed, PhD
...RESULTS Sheet plastination provides a new approach to elucidate the architecture of the fibrous connective tissue at macroscopic and microscopic levels and can trace the configuration of dense and loose connective tissues because it retains all of the structures in their “living” position, while different types of tissues (fatty and fibrous connective tissue and muscular tissue) are still clearly distinguishable ...CONCLUSION Sheet plastination is a powerful research tool for the macro-microscopic configuration of the fibrous connective tissue.
First International Fascia Research Congress (www.fascia2007.com):
Excerpt from Science Magazine, Nov 23, 2007:
"The meeting ...would be the first dedicated to the soft part of the body's connective tissue system — an important but medically neglected organ. It would bring together top scientists from fields as diverse as cell biology and biophysics, but it would also include alternative medicine practitioners.
"...This conference was a first venture within the field of the human fasciae to bring together scientists and clinicians and it was not at all certain that getting these two diverse groups together would satisfy everyone or produce constructive collaboration. ...Yet, by the end of the second day, it was obvious there was a meeting of minds. So much so that a leading researcher in biomechanics, Peter Huijing, PhD, of Vrije Unvesiteit in Amsterdam has agreed to help organize the ... conference in Amsterdam in 2009..."
Abstracts are/were available via the Abstracts 2007 and Abstracts 2009 and Abstracts 2012. These include Robert Schleip's "Fascial mechanoreceptors and their potential role in deep tissue manipulation" Excerpt, "Fascial plasticity - a new neurobiological explanation," Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 7(1):11-19 and 7(2):104-116 (2003). About fascia (connective tissue) as densely innervated by mechanoreceptors and effected by "self-regulatory dynamics": "...Fascia and the autonomic nervous system appear to be intimately connected. A change in attitude in myofascial practitioners from a mechanical perspective" is suggested. And "...of special interest in relation to fibromyalgia ...An attitudinal shift is suggested, from a mechanical body concept towards a cybernetic model, in which the practitioner's intervention are seen as stimulation [toward an inclusion of the self-regulatory dynamics of the nervous system ] within the client's organism." And "Additionally smooth muscle cells have been discovered in fascia, which seem to be involved in active fascial contractility. Fascia and the autonomic nervous system appear to be intimately connected." [!!! Editor's note: I found this abstract to be the MOST related to innervation (per the theory page here). It mentions what are now known to be the largest group of (type III & IV) sensory nerve fibers, now commonly called interstitial muscle receptors. "A better name would be interstitial myofascial tissue receptors since they also exist abundantly in fascia... are hardly mentioned in most textbooks." -cp]
Also SEE section "More Recent Related Scientific Research" for elaborated descriptions of the following and many related links:
"How A 'Sixth Sense' Helps Simone Biles Fly, And The Rest Of Us Walk" Heard on http://www.npr.org/programs/all-things-considered/2016/09/22/494987882 By Jon Hamilton, September 21, 2016
"The Role of PIEZO2 in Human Mechanosensation" New England Journal of Medicine Alexander T. Chesler, et al. September 14, 2016, DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1602812
Video of Drs. Chesler and Bönnemann discussing their study
The Continuity Of The Connective Tissue As Integrating Matrix:
Overlooked Implications in Fascia Research?
A Question of WHICH SENSOR pathways Relay "Fascia Memory"(?)
In "The Sensory Neurons of Touch" (2013)" some questions are brought up toward the end of the article, that might point us in some productive directions(?), some of which are included below. Thanks to research by Victoria E. Abraira and David D. Ginty, The Solomon H. Snyder Department of Neuroscience, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
Research in Water and Fascia
"New Hypotheses on the Hydration of Collagen," James L. Oschman, Ph.D., Source: Fascia Congress 2012 ...RESULTS: Highly ordered collagenous structures yield X-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance images showing precise fits with chains of water molecules. Because of the high degree of order, the water molecules are also regarded as a body-wide liquid crystalline system primarily oriented along the body’s vertical axis (c). Protein and hydration layers form a dynamically coherent unit extending throughout the body. Further research shows that there are about 3-4 layers of water molecules surrounding each collagen molecule (d). CONCLUSION: Recent research has revealed profoundly important quantum effects and relationships in structures such as these: an ability to trap environmental electromagnetic fields; an ability of interfascial water layers to act as batteries (Pollack); and an ability to release quasi-free anti-oxidant electrons that control inflammation and power redox reactions. James L. Oschman, Ph.D., Nature’s Own Research Association, PO Box 1935, Dover, NH
Leon Chaitow's Series of Articles About Research in Water and Fascia
Current Research in Water and Fascia- Micro-tornadoes, hydrogenated diamonds & nanocrystals By Leon Chaitow, ND, DO. A resource reference-packed article that serves as an index and guide to this growing topic and it's array of expanding implications. "The speed with which research is uncovering the secrets of fascia is mind-boggling...!"
Cell-matrix adhesion sites appear to host a "mechanosensory switch" as they transmit forces from the ECM to the cytoskeleton, and vice versa, triggering internal signals following mechanical stimulation, such as occurs in manual therapy.
There appear to be forms of communication within the fascial matrix, for example caused by tugging in the mucopolysaccharides, created by twisting acupuncture needles.
Water can be viewed as a 'designer fluid' in living cells."
Pollack GH, et al. Water and the Cell (book). Springer, 2006. (at Amazon)
This book deals with the role of water in cell function. Though long recognized to be central to cell function, water's role has not received the attention lately that it deserves. This book brings the role of water front and central. It presents the most recent work of the leading authorities on the subject, culminating in a series of sometimes astonishing observations. Water is a subject of interest to virtually everyone. It is becoming increasingly important in health therapy, in the environment, in chemistry and physics, and certainly in cells. Thus, this groundbreaking volume will be of great interest to a broad audience, well beyond those in biology alone.
[Key Phrases] - Statistically Improbable Phrases (SIPs): (learn more) vicinal hydration, inner water compartment, hydration compartments, methacrylate monomer units, extrovert models, most hydrophobic face, normal liquid water, interconnecting chain segments, following hypotonic shock, pressure pixel, water structure changes, frog muscle cells, fixed sulfates, vicinal water, water moieties, globular component, hydrophobic tip, percolative transition, migrating protons, curve fit analysis, low density water, multilayer theory, unexposed cells, water structuring, inverse temperature transition
[Key Phrases] - Capitalized Phrases (CAPs): (learn more) New York, Phys Chem, Pacific Press, Protein Data Bank, Physiol Chem Phys, Academic Press, Mol Biol, Rieske Iron Protein, Structure File, Proc Natl Acad Sci, San Antonio, Cell Biol Int, Plant Physiol, Plenum Press, Biol Chem, Colloid Interface Sci, Jacques Benveniste, Amer Chem Soc, Cambridge University Press, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Adv Protein Chem, Drost Hansen, Proc Nail Acad Sci, World Scientific, Biochim Biophys Acta
Other Key References on Cellular Memory, Engrams, and supportive Cell Biophysics Research
(w/o Links here; more or less sorted):
Young, J.Z., 1975. The life of Mammals. Their Anatomy and Physiology. 2nd Edition, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Re: plasticity of connective tissue and it's ability to store information. See account of this in "Somatic Recall" reference above, wherein Oschman states that Paul Weiss (see below reference) studied and documented the phenomenon that Young described.
Microcosmos (1986, Simon & Schuster Pub.), by Lynn Margulis & Dorian Sagan. (chapters 8 & 9)
Capra, F., 1982. The turning point. Simon and Schuster, New York.
The Holographic Universe, by Michael Talbot, includes a very readable description of holographic memory theory (summarized in "Somatic Recall" Part II).
Garden of Microbial Delights (1993, Kendall Hunt Pub.), by Lynn Margulis & Dorian Sagan. Introduces "symbiosis" and mitochondria.
Wilder Penfield discovered that electrical stimulation for particular areas on the brain surface caused patients to re-experience "memories" from the past; "flashbacks". Concluded that all experiences recorded in brain. [Penfield, W., 1975. The mystery of the mind: A critical study of consciousness and the human brain. Princeton University Press, Princeton, J.J.] This later led to theory of "engrams", or memory traces stored as neural patterns of neural discharge in specific areas of the brain - so far never found, even by Karl Lashley, "distinguished Harvard psychologist who spent virtually his entire scientific career, 30 years, in an unsuccessful search for the engram." [Lashley, K., 1950. In search of the engram, in Physiological Mechanisms in Animal Behaviour, New York, Academic Press, pp.454-482.] Karl Pribram was student of Lashley.
Pribram, K.,1969. The neurophysiology of remembering. Scientific American (January issue) 220:75;
Pribram, K., 1977. Languages of the brain. Wadsworth Publishing, Monterey, CA.
Pietsch, P., 1981. Shufflebrain. The quest for the holographic mind. Houghton Mifflin, Boston. Book details his research (incl. 700 operations on salamander brains) attempting to disprove Pribrams theories re: Holographic Memory and implications for the brain, but ended up convincing himself of its accuracy. [noted in 2nd article, p.78 Massage Therapy Journal, Fall 95].
van Heerden, P., 1970. Models for the brain. nature (July 25) 227:410-411.
Gabor, D., 1972. Holography, 1948-1971. Science 177:299-313.
Julesz, B. and K.S. Pennington, 1965. Equidistributional information mapping: An analogy to holograms and memory. Journal of the Optical Society of America 55:604. [noted in/quoted from 2nd article, p.73 Massage Therapy Journal, Fall 95: "...made explicit suggestion that memory is stored in the brain as interference patterns comparable to those used in holography."]
Collier, J., C.B. Burckhardt, and L. H. Lin, 1971. Optical holography. New York, Academic Press.
Pollen, D.A. and M.C. Tractenberg, 1972. Alpha rhythm and eye movements in eidetic imagery. Nature (May 12) 237:109.
DeValois, K.K. and R.L. DeValois 1980. Spatial vision. Annual Review of Psychology 31:309-341.
DeValois, K.K., R.L. DeValois, and W.W. Yund, 1979. Responses of striate cortex cells to grating and checkerboard patterns. journal of Physiology 291:483:050;
Squire, L.R., Memory and Brain.
Jablonka, P., in Hameroff, 1987. Ultimate computing: biomolecular consciousness and nanotechnology. elsevier-North Holland, Amsterdam.
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An Email Discussion (Jan.'98) between Dr. Ralph Wilson, ND (RW) and myself (BCP):
BCP: My occupation, vocation, and main interest is the science regarding how and why connective tissue contracts and relaxes -- thereby determining most, if not every, form of energy flow around/into/through ALL bodily structures and systems, and thereby determining not only the state of communicability, but the very survival of each cell. This involves the most physical of dynamics as well as, in my perspective, the psycho-emotional, and psycho-spiritual, and/or how (the degree of balance with which) one consciously and/or unconsciously inter-connects all that. A primer in that regard may be found in the Essay, "Body-Mind Integration in the Personal Growth Process" [addendum essays added on that page May-Oct'11].
RW: The thought--craniosacral rhythm seems related to cosmic forces, at least the moon cycle. Ebb, flow...etc.
BCP: Yes, but the pathways (and their blocks, therefore the volume & rhythm) are strongly affected if not pretty much determined by the positioning, degree of vascular constriction, degree of flexibility in, and direction of, movement on/with surrounding tissues/organs, degree of other forms of energy flow/charge/frequency in proximity (and more ? ) of the fascia and other connective tissues. Just the moisture levels (to take one of its properties for example) in/on/around fascia can make a difference in the friction with muscle/organ/other tissues in/against it, and that (friction) is what scar tissue (in the worst case) and postural patterning in general is all about. Those And for this came Rolfing, and the various related therapies it parented, all whose basis is "connective tissue therapy." And those moisture levels affect the bio-electric current and peripheral current vibration around and through it --via energy fields as well as via neuronal activity. Here's where that essay/theory comes in strongly (the link is on the previous emailing).
RW: I scanned it quickly, where does homeopathy fit in? I am more intrigued by this.
BCP: In determining the flow, state of communicability ? Well, I guess, in some cases Homeopathy will interface directly with these dynamics, depending on the particular remedy, I would surmise (?) This reminds me of two quotes:
It's the last phrase by Ida Rolf that provides the kicker here. The CT is not only the physical net in/of and around all the other stuff, it is also the most continuous and most tangibly interconnective of any system save possibly for the blood or bio-electric current itself, and even those are potentially as affected by the CT as the CT is by them ! And then there is that memory storage medium capacity -- theoretically at the least -- that enters into other ballparks in which there are many other complementary therapies/modalities.
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