"According to Becker (1990), the DC body field is not located in the nervous sytem itself, but in "perineural" tissues such as the glial cells in the brain and spinal cord, and the schwann cells encasing the peripheral nerves. This hypothesis would seem to conflict with the suggestion that the DC body field is correlated with the acupuncture system. ...Also, an electrodynamical field can be detected in all early embryos and in plants and animals which do not have neural or perineural tissues (Burr and Northrup, 1935). It is likely that the DC field is functionally interconnected with the nervous system, and yet exists, to a large degree, outside the nervous system. In fact, it is widely recognized that under a variety of conditions, the speed of communication in our body is much faster than can be accounted for by the known speed of nerve conduction (see Ho, 1997a), and nerves simply do not reach all parts of our body. ...we recently discovered that the living continuum is liquid crystalline, with all the properties that make liquid crystals ideal for intercommunication (Ho et al, 1996; Ho, 1997a). [various important lead-up points & references skipped]... Liquid crystals typically undergo rapid changes in orientation or phase transitions when exposed to electric (and magnetic) fields - which is why they are widely used in display screens. They also respond to changes in temperature, hydration, shear forces and pressure. Biological liquid crystals carry static electric charges and are therefore also influenced by pH, salt concentration and dielectric constant of the solvent (Collings, 1990; Knight and Feng, 1993). [various important lead-up points & references skipped] ...It is already widely recognized that all the major constituents of living organisms may be liquid crystalline (Collings, 1990) - lipids of cellular membranes, DNA, possibly all proteins, especially cytoskeletal proteins, muscle proteins, and proteins in the connective tissues such as collagens and proteoglycans (Bouligand, 1972; Giraud-Guille, 1992; Knight and Feng, 1993). Recent nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) studies of muscles in living human subjects provide evidence of their "liquid-crystalline-like" structure (Kreis and Boesch, 1994). [various important lead-up points & references skipped] ...Hardy suggested in 1927 that molecular orientation may be important for living protoplasm, and Peters, two years later, made the explicit link between molecular orientation and liquid crystals. Needham, indeed, proposed that organisms actually are liquid crystalline. But direct evidence for that has only recently been provided by Ho and coworkers ( Ho and Lawrence, 1993; Ho and Saunders, 1994; Ho et al, 1996). who successfully imaged live organisms using an interference colour technique that amplifies weak birefringences typical of biological liquid crystals."
The noted references have been put below in the section, "References from Mae Won Ho".
"Unlocking the Brain’s Deepest Secrets"
By Teal Burrell, 25 May 2016 (NOVA at PBS)
[ My Comment Follows (Opinion, relative to *fascia memory theory* ]
"In neuroscience, neurons get all the glory. Or rather, they used to. Researchers are beginning to discover the importance of something outside the neurons — a structure called the perineuronal net ...an organized tangle of proteins that helps form the extracellular matrix, a sort of neuron exoskeleton. ...perineuronal nets and the extracellular matrix might explain many of neuroscience’s mysteries."
...“Up to this point, we still don’t understand how we maintain memories in our brains for up to our entire lifetimes,” says Sakina Palida, a graduate student in Roger Tsien’s lab at the University of California, San Diego. ..."
Memory was previously theorized to be facilitated by a kind of reinforcement of brain neurons with added synapses, but there were too many holes in the theory.
"...That the perineuronal net is involved in some form of memory isn’t entirely new; Tsien’s hypothesis is that it is the structure for long-term memory, and that is new...To Tsien, a modern Nobel laureate, the breakthrough came when he started thinking outside the neuron. Instead of molecules inside neurons retaining memories, molecules outside neurons might be the key. “You need very long lasting molecules to store things and what else is better than just on the other side, the outside of the synapse?” Tsien says. “You have equal access to the information that’s in the synapse, but the proteins and carbohydrates that are on the outside of the synapse can last forever.”" The nets were reported 130 years ago by Camillo Golgi, but after a time of not knowing their purpose, became pretty much ignored."
"In 2009, perineuronal nets were blamed for the fact that fear memories are nearly impossible to erase in adults. ...At the latest Society for Neuroscience meeting in Chicago, it was clear perineuronal nets are not being ignored any longer. ..."
My Comment (including note on positive touch-related memories):
While this theory is probably right on target, I believe it is much more likely to explain non-traumatic long-term memories, and not the hard-core glue of trauma-suppressed memories (*per fascia memory theory*). And the discovery of the *means by which the nets work* will very likely be key to the discovery of the means by which fascia-memory works, if not the existance of that matrix/system itself. That is, the means for the brain's nets will likely be found similar to that for fascia-memory. However, they will likely be found far more *neuro-magnetically* similar, but less neuro-electrically, and certainly less neuro-mechanically similar, if you will, to the fascia-memory matrixes. There are no proprioceptors in the brain, afterall. AND (per *fascia-memory theory*) there will be found a relationship between the neuronets of the fascia and that of the brain - one that is set up to communicate with each other on an as-needed, certainly long-term basis. And yes, "neuro-magnetically" is the term I intended to use - per the *fascia-memory theory* - and refers to the mechanisms of neuro-muscular physiology yet to be found[?] and which (to me, still) appears is going to require more advanced scanning equipment than we have yet to devise and use[?]. Another question arises (here) about the strongest positive touch-related memories, and I'm guessing that those are "referenced" in the fascia via a third set of (neuro-magnetic) mechanisms, more subtle than that for trauma-suppressed memories, hence not based on or necessarily related to[?] the fascia-pleating mechanism.
References from Mae Won Ho [for excerpt included above and other pages at this site]
|NOTE: My research leads me to believe that the above noted article ("The Acupuncture System and The Liquid Crystalline Collagen Fibres of the Connective Tissues"), otherwise extremely difficult to find now (2009), has been revised and much expanded into the following article: Organism and Psyche in a Participatory Universe, (particularly pertinent here would be the sections, "The coherence of brain and body consciousness" and "Quantum coherence and brain consciousness") by Mae-Wan Ho, (Bioelectrodynamic Laboratory, Open University, Walton Hall Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA, U.K., Tel. 01908-65-3113; Fax. 01908-654167). The original article was previously at http://www.i-sis.org/lcm.shtml, but (for now I am republishing it at my site . Related Article: "Coherent Energy, Liquid Crystallinity and Acupuncture" - Talk presented to British Acupuncture Society by Mae-Wan Ho, 2 October, 1999. Also to note is her essay, "Bioenergetics and Biocommunication." Most of Mae-Wan Ho's work can be found via Institute of Science in Society (ISIS at www.i-sis.org), which she is the director of.||
1. Becker, R.O.:Proof that the direct electrical currents in the salamander are semiconducting innature. Science 134, 101-102, 1961.
2. Becker, R.O. Cross Currents. The Promise of Electromedicine, the Perils of Electropollution. Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., Los Angeles, 1990.
3. Becker, R., M. Reichmanis and A. Marino. Electrophysiological correlates of acupuncture points and meridians. Psychoenergetic Systems 1: 105, 1976.
4. Bella, J., M. Eaton, B.Brodsky and H.M. Berman. Crystal and molecular structure of a collagen-like peptide at 1.9Å resolution. Science 266, 75-81, 1994.
5. Burr, H.S. and F.S.C. Northrup. The electro-dynamic theory of life. Quart. Rev. Biol. 10: 322-333, 1935.
6. Ho, M.W.: Quantum Coherence and Conscious Experience. Kybernetes, 26: 265-276, 1997a.
7. Ho, M.W., Haffegee, J., Newton, R., Zhou, Y.M., Bolton, J.S., Ross, S.: Organisms as polyphasic liquid crystals. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 41, 81-91, 1996.
8. Knight, D.P., S.W. Hu, L.J. Gathercole, M. Rusaöuen-Innocent, M.W. Ho and R. Newton, Molecular orientation in an extruded collagenous composite, the marginal rib of the egg capsule of the dogfish Cyliorhinus canicula: a novel lyotropic liquid crystalline arrangement and how it is defined in the spinneret. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 351: 1205-1232, 1996.
9. Zhou, Y.M., R.H. Newton, J; Haffegee, J.Y. Brown, S. Ross, J.P. Bolton and M.W. Ho. Imaging liquid crystalline mesophases in vivo and in vitro: measuring molecular birefringence and order parameter of liquid crystals. Bios Journal, 1996.
10. Collings, P.J. Liquid Crystals, Nature's Delicate Phase of Matter, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1990.
11. Knight, D. and D. Feng. Collagens as liquid crystals. Paper presented in British Association for the Advancement of Science, Chemistry Session, Molecular Self-Assembly in Science and Life, Keele, 1993.
12. Bouligand, Y.: Twisted Fibrous Arrangement in Biological Materials and Cholesteric Mesophases. Tissue and Cell 4, 189-217, 1972.
13. Giraud-Guille, M.M. Liquid crystallinity in condensed type I collagen solutions. A clue to the packing of collagen in extracellular matrices. Journal of Molecular Biology 224: 861-873, 1992.
14. Kreis, R., Boesch, C.: Liquid-crystal-like structure of human muscle demonstrated by in vivo observation of direct dipolar coupling in localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Journal of Magnetic Resonance B 104: 189-192, 1994.
15. Ho, M.W., Lawrence, M.: Interference Colour Vital Imaging: A Novel Noninvasive Microsopic Technique. Microscopy and Analysis September, 26.
16. Ho, M.W. and P.T. Saunders. Liquid crystalline mesophases in living organisms. in Bioelectrodynamics and Biocommunication, Ho,M.W., F.A. Popp and U. Warnke (Eds.), World Scientific, Singapore, 1994.
17. Ho, M.W. Towards a theory of the organism. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science 32: 1997b.
18. Ho, M.W.The Rainbow and the Worm, The Physics of Organisms, 2nd ed., World Scientific, Singapore, 1998.
19. Haffegee, J., M.W. Ho and Y.M. Zhou, unpublished results, 1998.
20. Ross, S., R. Newton, Y.M. Zhou, H. Jaffegee, M.W. Ho, J.P. Bolton and D. Knight. Quantitative image analysis of birefringent biological material. Journal of Microscopy 187: 62-67, 1997.
21. Oschman, J.L. Structure and properties of ground substances. American Zoologist 24: 199-215, 1984.
22. Oschman, J.L.: A Biophysical Basis of Acupuncture, Private manuscript, 1993.
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